number of breaks: 4
Leveraging Earth to study how water formed on ancient Mars
Unlike our own Blue Planet, Mars is currently too cold to sustain liquid water at its surface. At first glance, Mars 4 billion years ago should have been even colder. Back then, the Sun's brightness was only about 70% of what it is today. Yet... click to read more
Are planets with oxygen-rich atmospheres rare?
Complex life on Earth requires oxygen. Understanding how oxygen levels have evolved on our planet can provide an insight into our own evolution and the possibility of complex life evolving elsewhere. Current theories suggest that Earth's O2 levels have risen three times over its 4.5... click to read more
Lighting a candle in the dark
More than two billion years ago, a group of microorganisms called cyanobacteria invented oxygenic photosynthesis, the process that turns light, carbon dioxide, and water into chemical energy and oxygen. Cyanobacteria are the plants of the microbial world - in fact, plants can perform photosynthesis because... click to read more